Biblical Calendar 2022

Google Translate

Sunset Times
Crescent New Moon Visibility; Astronomical New Moon; Equinox
The
Crescent New Moon Maps show when the next new moon will become visible.

There are several references below to the book, Calendar and Community : A History of the Jewish Calendar, 2nd century BCE – 10th century CE, by Sacha Stern. This is an expensive book to purchase, but you can download it free of charge by clicking on this link.
(The pages in the references are the download pages and not the printed book pages.)

Why do we need a biblical calendar? In the mid-19th century it was contended by some in the Sabbatarian Churches of God that the Lord’s Supper should not be kept several times a year, or as often as desired, but once annually, on the anniversary of the evening before Jesus Christ’s death.
In 1848 Ellen White summarily dismissed the notion that the Seventh Day Adventist Church should keep it annually.

Robert Coulter sets out, in an article for the Bible Advocate magazine, What’s in an Ordinance? how the Church of God 7th Day came to observe the Lord’s Supper/Passover annually, and to determine which day on the Roman calendar that should be.

“But by 1872 (Samuel) Davison had become convinced that the Lord’s Supper should be observed annually at the time of Jesus’s death in the spring. He wrote an article for The Hope of Israel purporting that Jesus instituted the Lord’s Supper the night before He was crucified on the Jewish Passover as a memorial to His impending death. Davison reasoned that the Passover, a memorial to Israel’s deliverance from Egypt, was an annual observance. Therefore, the Lord’s Supper, a memorial of Jesus’s death, should be observed annually like the Passover, around the time of the Passover.
Davison’s argument for an annual communion service received such wide support from the churches’ membership in Michigan, Iowa, and Missouri that Jacob Brinkerhoff, editor of
The Hope of Israel, began publishing an annual date for the churches to observe the Lord’s Supper. Brinkerhoff did not have access to a Jewish calendar to know the exact date of the annual Passover. Therefore, he published dates near the spring equinox so all the churches that subscribed to an annual communion service could observe it in unison.”

Why should he use the equinox?
The Roman Catholic church, not desiring to follow the tradition of the Jews, had instituted instead the celebration of the resurrection at Easter, this being the first Sunday after the Paschal full moon following the vernal equinox.
It was logical to suppose that the Jewish calendar therefore placed Passover at the full moon following the vernal equinox, so he counted from the new moon nearest the equinox to the 14th day for the Lord’s Supper.
This unfortunately led to a general understanding that the Jewish calendar year always begins when the new moon nearest the vernal equinox is seen at Jerusalem.
This incorrect belief was reiterated by Herbert Armstrong as late as 1971:
“The first day of the new year always begins with the day nearest the spring equinox when the new moon is first visible to the naked eye AT JERUSALEM (not in the United States). The Jewish calendar as used by Jews today is correct.”
(Tomorrow’s World, March 1971, last paragraph)

The main calendars observed today are as follows:

[1] Jewish Calendar

The history of the Jewish calendar may be divided into three periods the Scriptural, the Talmudic, and the post-Talmudic. The first rested purely on the observation of the sun and the moon, the second on observation and reckoning, and the third entirely on reckoning.”
(The Jewish Encyclopedia : History of Calendar)

The Scriptual Calendar was observed at the Second Temple, and is recorded in the Mishnah, a collection of 63 tractates, divided into 6 orders, one of them being the Mo’edim (the appointed times of Jehovah).

The calendar of the Mishnah is discussed and debated in detail in both the Palestinian and the Babylonian Talmudim … The fact that no other calendar system is ever referred to in the Talmudim may be regarded as significant. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, it is reasonable to assume that the Mishnaic system was perpetuated well into the Amoraic period (third to fifth centuries).” (Calendar and Community : A History of the Jewish Calendar, 2nd century BCE – 10th century CE, by Sacha Stern, p.181)

The first month of the year was when the barley (the early summer grain crop) would be ready for harvesting by the Sunday after Passover:
“In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, is Jehovah’s passover … When ye are come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring the sheaf of the first-fruits of your harvest unto the priest: and he shall wave the sheaf before Jehovah, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the Sabbath the priest shall wave it.” (Leviticus 23:10-11 ASV)

If there were doubt as to the time of the harvest, the Sanhedrin would consider secondary signs the sufficiency of lambs for Passover and signs in nature that winter was ending.
“This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you … In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb.”
(Exodus 12:2,3 ASV)
For, lo, the winter is past; The rain is over and gone; The flowers appear on the earth; The time of the singing of birds is come, And the voice of the turtle-dove is heard in our land; The fig-tree ripeneth her green figs, And the vines are in blossom; They give forth their fragrance.
(Song of Solomon 2:11-13 ASV)

Temple Institute, Rosh Hashana describes the procedures at the Second Temple for determining and proclaiming the 1st day of the Jewish new year. The Babylonian rabbis changed New Year’s Day to the 1st day of the 7th month, because they believed that the 7th month was the month of creation.
… after the exile of most of the Jews who lived in the Kingdom of Judah to Babylonia by the conquering Babylonians … the practise of observing the New Year For Kings and Festivals on the 1st day of Nissan or Nisan was ended and the Civil New Year was changed from the 1st day of Nissan or Nisan to the 1st day of Tishrei (or Tishri), that is, on Rosh Hashanah.
(Elimelech David Ha-Levi, Jewish (Hebrew) Calendar – Origin And History)

After the destruction of the Temple, how did the Palestinian court notify the scattered Jewish communities in the Diaspora of its decisions on the new year and new moons?
“the dependence of Diaspora communities on the calendrical decisions of the Palestinian rabbinic court. This assumption is based on contemporary rabbinic sources, but these reflect rabbinic wishful thinking rather than historical reality. All the evidence suggests, in fact, that Diaspora communities took charge of their own calendar, without ever referring to Palestinian calendrical authority. The communities of Antioch and in Alexandria, as we have seen, chose their own ‘limits’ of Passover and ran their calendar accordingly.” (Sacha Stern, ibid., p.100)

The very large Jewish community in Babylonia remained loyal to the Palestinian court, because the Babylonian rabbis observed the Jewish Oral Law, which required the calendar to be declared from Palestine. As Babylon is nearly a thousand miles away, torches were lit along the route when the new moon was sighted in Israel, but this does not seem to have been particularly successful. Owing to the difficulties for the Jews in Babylon in observing this calendar, there was a lot of discussion, recorded in the Babylonian Talmud, on introducing fixed rules that would limit the Palestinian calendar court as to when the calendar year and months could begin.

Although a fixed calendar had begun to take shape by the fourth century CE, it was not identical with the Jewish rabbinic calendar of today. A number of documents and texts from the Geonic period (after 600 AD) reveal that the rabbinic calendar was reckoned differently till as late as the ninth century. It is only in the tenth century, in R. Saadya Gaon’s extensive correspondence with Ben Meir (921/2 AD), that we find evidence of the rabbinic calendar in its full present-day form. (Sacha Stern, ibid., p.199)

The calculated calendar system developed by the Babylonian rabbis is observed today by the Orthodox, Conservative and Reform Jews, and is universally regarded as being THE Jewish Calendar.

The Church of God 7th Day (HQ in Denver) and the Church of God 7th Day (Jerusalem)  utilize the Jewish Calendar for the timing of the Lord’s Supper, which they observe on the evening of the 14th of Abib (Nisan). The Jerusalem church group does not acknowledge any other annual observances, but the Denver church allows its congregations and individual members to observe them if they so wish.

There are two small sects in Israel that have a different calendar:
The
Israelite Samaritans – who do not disclose their calendar calculations, but the calendar appears to be similar to biblical calendar [5] below.
The
Karaite Jews – who observe the Jewish scriptural calendar, i.e. [7] below.

The Jewish calculated calendar year is based on a 19 year cycle, with a 13th month added before Abib (Nisan) in 7 of these years, being originally set so that the Passover festival would start around the first full moon after the vernal equinox. This cycle does not exactly synchronize with the solar year, so that the Passover festival is now sometimes a month late.
Although the start of the calendar year is dependent on the vernal equinox, the calendar year begins on and is calculated from the
Molad Emtzai (conjunction) of Tishrei, the 7th month.
There are 4 postponement rules that would delay the 1st of Tishrei by 1 or 2 days, but none applies for 2022.

These are the basic rules, but the mathematics of the Jewish calculated calendar are complicated, and a comprehensive understanding of the calendar’s complexity is provided by The Hebrew Calendar, A Mathematical Introduction, by John Kossey, Ambassador College Instructor. This was first issued in 1971, and amended in 1974 due to the change from a Monday to a Sunday Pentecost by the Worldwide Church of God.

[2] Hebrew Calendar of the Worldwide Church of God
WCG’s Hebrew calendar, which continues to be kept by its major offshoots, is the same as the Jewish calendar, except for the following:
The Biblical year begins on the 1st of Nisan (Exodus 12:2 and Deuteronomy 16:1).
In order to reconcile using a calendar that calculates the holy days from the 1st day of the 7th month, the WCG wrongly taught that the Jews observe the 1st of Nisan as the beginning of the religious year and the 1st of the 7th month as the beginning of the civil year. 
In the
Jewish Calendar, Rosh Hashanah is the 1st day of both the civil year and religious year and is a major holy day. Rosh Chodesh Nisan is merely one of the other 11 ‘new moons’.
Passover/Lord’s Supper should be observed on the 14th, not the 15th.
Pentecost/Shavuot is not on the 6th of Sivan, but rather 50 days from the Sunday within the festival, counting inclusively, (i.e. that Sunday is day 1 of the count, so the count is completed on a Sunday.)
Prior to 1974 the WCG kept Pentecost on a Monday, because Herbert Armstrong reasoned that: “50 days FROM a Sunday can be counted NO OTHER WAY than that ONE day FROM Sunday is Monday, and 50 days FROM Sunday always falls on a Monday.”
In 1974 leading ministers produced the
Pentecost Study Material, to convince him that Hebrew counting was inclusive. In reality, Hebrews, Greeks, Romans and everybody else in biblical times used this method, with letters representing numbers.
The ‘Arabic’ numerals that we use today were not introduced into Europe until the 13th century. In the
Liber Abaci (1202), the Italian mathematician Fibonacci introduced the western world to the Modus Indorum – the Hindu-Arabic numeric system, i.e. 0-9.
The symbol ‘0’ enables counting to begin with ‘zero’ (exclusive counting – the dominant modern method) as well as ‘one’ (inclusive counting – the biblical method).
The symbol BC (before Christ) to denote a Roman calendar year before 1AD (anno domini – in the year of the Lord), came into common use before the 13th century, which is why the year 1AD is preceded by 1BC and not the year zero.
If the Jewish Calendar is God’s Sacred Calendar, as the WCG taught, what authority did Herbert Armstrong hold to make several changes to it?
In an
interview with WCG minister Jeff Booth in 1980, Herbert Armstrong declared that:
“The title, and the keys, passed from chief apostle to chief apostle, from Peter to Peter. Each chief apostle was the new Peter. ‘Now I am the chief apostle, and I am the Peter’.”
“Whatever I bind is bound in heaven, and whatever I loose is loosed in heaven.”
“The Day of Pentecost is now on Sunday. But, since I had made the decision to observe Pentecost on Monday, for years the Day of Pentecost was actually on Monday.”

Time cycles, such as the one used for the Jewish calendar, are not needed today, as the precise moment of the equinoxes, conjunctions, and even new moon sightings, are readily available from HM Nautical Almanac Office. There are 4 modern variations based on the vernal equinox and the conjunction or new moon sighting. The new year begins at:

[3] Day of the astronomical new moon [1st of April 2022], nearest to the vernal equinox [20th of March in 2022].

[4] Day of the appearance of the crescent new moon [3rd of April 2022] – visible in the brief period between sunset and moonset – nearest to the Vernal Equinox [20th of March in 2022].
The Church of God 7th Day (Salem) keeps the Lord’s Supper on the evening of the 14th by this method (see doctrinal point no.15 on this website link).

[5] Day of the astronomical new moon [1st of April 2022], following the vernal equinox [20th of March in 2022].

[6] Day of the appearance of the crescent new moon [3rd of April 2022] – visible in the brief period between sunset and moonset – following the vernal equinox [20th of March in 2022].

The biblical justification for starting the year according to the vernal equinox is dependent upon interpreting the Hebrew word tequfah in Exodus 34:22 to mean equinox.

A further rule that appears to date from the Amoraic period is that of the equinox. Although the equinox is mentioned already in the Tosefta, it only serves as one of a few criteria involved in the intercalation (see section 4.1.2). The rule that emerges in the Amoraic period is that intercalations can and should be made on the sole basis of the equinox.
The rule of the equinox is attested in a single passage in the Babylonian Talmud (Rosh ha-Shanah 21a) … implies that 15 Nisan, the first day of Unleavened bread, cannot occur before the vernal equinox. In this recension, the term aviv is treated as synonymous with tequfah (equinox).
  (Sacha Stern, ibid., p.184)

Tequfah (Strong’s H8622): a revolution, i.e. (of the sun) course, (of time) lapse).
This Hebrew word is found in 4 verses:
“And you shall observe a Feast of Weeks for yourself, the firstfruits of the harvest of wheat; also the Feast of Ingathering at the turn of the year.” (Exodus 34:22 Green’s Literal Version)
“Turn of the year” here refers to the turn of the season from Summer to Winter.
(The seasons of Spring and Autumn are not found in the Bible.)

‘And it happened, at the turn of the year, that the army of Syria came up against him…’
(2 Chronicles 24:23)
‘And it happened when the time had come around, Hannah conceived and bore a son’
(1 Samuel 1:20).
‘… his going forth from the end of the heavens, and his orbit to their ends’ (Psalm 19:6)

Calendars [3] and [4] begin the Feast of Ingathering at the turn of the year (i.e. the first full moon after the September equinox), but [5] and [6] begin the 7th month at the new moon following the equinox, and so they often observe this festival one month later.

[7] Day of the appearance of the crescent new moon – visible in the brief period between sunset and moonset – in the month that the barley in Israel will be ready for harvesting by the Sunday after Passover (Leviticus 23:10-12). This date will likely be the 3rd of April in 2022.

This is the Scriptural Jewish Calendar, which had to be abandoned because the dates could not be notified to a widely spread community. The Internet Age has enabled the revival of the Aviv Barley calendar for those living outside Israel. In 2002 various independent Christians made their first journey to Israel to report on when the fields of barley would be ready for harvesting, and to sight the new moon.

The Sanhedrin website indicates that the Jews will return to sighting the new moon when the Sanhedrin achieves official status and has the authority to change the Jewish calendar:
“A special court has been established to accept evidence concerning the sighting of the New Moon, as required by Jewish Law. This court is made up of various justices who are assembled to hear evidence as the opportunity permits. The purpose of the court is to increase awareness, develop skills, and resolve halachic issues that arise when determining the Jewish Calendar according to testimony by witnesses. At this point there is no intention to supercede the mathematical calendar currently in use and fix the calendar on the basis of the testimony.”

The website does not mention starting the year according to the barley harvest. The rabbis have changed the Jewish New Year (Rosh Hashana) to the 1st day of the 7th month, so the barley harvest is now of little relevance to them.

The dates in 2022 for the seven main ‘Biblical’ calendars observed by the 7th Day Churches of God (within which there are a few variations) are shown in the table below. The dates for the 3 annual festivals (Exodus 23:14-16) are printed in green, and the 7 annual holy days are in red.

The crescent new moon of the 1st month of the biblical year was easily visible over most of the earth on the evening of Saturday, the 2nd of April (as shown by these graphs).
There was, however, haze over the whole of Israel, so for those who observe calendar
[7] and who require actual sighting of the new moon over Israel, the 1st day of the new year will be Monday, the 4th of April. This not only changes the times of Passover and the Festival by one day, but also affects the counting to Pentecost, which will now be on Sunday, the 12th of June, instead of the 5th.
This difference has been accommodated by creating a separate column for calendar
[8] – because most groups observing calendar [7] will accept sighting elsewhere.

 

[1]

[2]

[3] [5]

[4] [6] [7]

[8]

New Years Day
(Rosh Hashana)

Mon.-Tue.
Sept.26-27

Sat.
Apr.2

Fri.
Apr.1

Sun.
Apr.3

Mon.
Apr.4

Lords Supper/Passover/Seder (evening before)

Sat.
Apr.16

Fri.
Apr.15

Thu.
Apr.14

Sat.
Apr.16

Sun.
Apr.17

Festival of
Unleavened Bread

April
16-23

April
16-22

April
15-21

April
17-23

April
18-24

1st Day of
Unleavened Bread

Sat-Sun
Apr.16-17

Sat.
Apr.16

Fri.
Apr.15

Sun.
Apr.17

Mon.
Apr.18

7th Day of
Unleavened Bread

Sat-Sun
Apr.22-23

Fri.
Apr.22

Thu.
Apr.21

Sat.
Apr.23

Sun.
Apr.24

Firstfruits Festival
(Pentecost/Shavuot)

Sun-Mon
June 5-6

Sun.
June 5

Sun.
June 5

Sun.
June 5

Sun.
June 12

Day of Trumpets
(Yom Teruah)

Mon-Tue
Sept.26-27

Mon.
Sept.26

Mon.
Sept.26

Wed.
Sept.28

Wed.
Sept.28

Day of Atonement
(Yom Kippur)

Wed
Oct.5

Wed
Oct.5

Wed
Oct.5

Fri
Oct.7

Fri.
Oct.7

Sukkot – Festival
of Tabernacles

October
10-16

October
10-16

October
10-16

October
12-18

October
12-18

1st Day of
Tabernacles

Mon-Tue
Oct.10-11

Mon.
Oct.10

Mon.
Oct.10

Wed.
Oct.12

Wed.
Oct.12

Eighth
Day

Mon.
Oct.17

Mon.
Oct.17

Mon
Oct.17

Wed.
Oct.19

Wed.
Oct.19

%d bloggers like this:
search previous next tag category expand menu location phone mail time cart zoom edit close